ERC-777 Token Standard

Introduction to ERC-777

ERC-777 is an advanced token standard on the Ethereum blockchain designed to improve upon the widely-used ERC-20 standard. It introduces new features to facilitate more complex interactions and enhance the functionality of token transfers while maintaining backward compatibility with ERC-20.

Key Features of ERC-777

Enhanced Token Interaction

ERC-777 allows for more complex token interactions through the use of hooks and operators. These features enable more sophisticated and secure token transactions.


Hooks are functions called during token transfers. They allow contracts to react to incoming or outgoing tokens, which can include accepting or rejecting tokens or redirecting them. This mechanism eliminates the need for the approve and transferFrom functions required in ERC-20, thus reducing the transaction steps and costs.


Operators are addresses authorized to manage tokens on behalf of the token holder. This feature is particularly useful for services such as exchanges or automated systems that require the ability to send or receive tokens without involving the token holder directly. Token holders can authorize or revoke operators at any time, providing flexibility and security.

Benefits of ERC-777

Enhanced Security and Flexibility

The introduction of hooks and operators enhances the security and flexibility of token transactions. Hooks prevent accidental token transfers to incompatible contracts, a common issue with ERC-20 tokens. Operators facilitate smoother and more efficient transactions, especially for automated systems and services.

Backward Compatibility

ERC-777 tokens can interact with existing ERC-20 contracts, ensuring a smooth transition and interoperability within the Ethereum ecosystem. This backward compatibility allows developers to integrate ERC-777 tokens without extensive modifications to existing systems.

Reduced Transaction Costs

By streamlining the token transfer process, ERC-777 reduces the number of transactions required, thereby lowering gas fees and improving overall efficiency. This is especially beneficial during periods of high network congestion.

Implementing ERC-777

Core Functions

ERC-777 introduces several core functions essential for managing tokens:

  • name(): Returns the token’s name.
  • symbol(): Returns the token’s symbol.
  • granularity(): Defines the smallest indivisible unit of the token.
  • totalSupply(): Returns the total supply of tokens.
  • balanceOf(): Returns the balance of a specific account.
  • send(): Transfers tokens from the caller’s account to a recipient.
  • burn(): Destroys a specified number of tokens, reducing the total supply.
  • isOperatorFor(): Checks if an address is an operator for a token holder.
  • authorizeOperator(): Authorizes an operator to manage the caller’s tokens.
  • revokeOperator(): Revokes an operator’s authorization.
  • defaultOperators(): Returns the list of default operators.
  • operatorSend(): Allows an operator to transfer tokens on behalf of a holder.
  • operatorBurn(): Allows an operator to burn tokens on behalf of a holder.

Example Use Cases

ERC-777’s advanced features make it suitable for various applications, including:

  • Automated Payment Systems: Enable automatic fund transfers and payments without requiring manual approval for each transaction.
  • Tokenized Assets: Manage complex token interactions in decentralized finance (DeFi) applications.
  • Gaming: Facilitate in-game transactions and token management, ensuring secure and efficient handling of digital assets.


ERC-777 represents a significant advancement in Ethereum token standards, providing enhanced functionality, security, and efficiency. Its ability to handle complex token interactions while remaining compatible with ERC-20 ensures it can be seamlessly integrated into the existing ecosystem. As blockchain technology evolves, ERC-777 sets a new standard for token management and transaction optimization.

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